Archive for the 'Hemp&Fuel' Category

Pot Power- Turning Hemp into electricity

July 24, 2008
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Some clean hemp energy solutions!

May 15, 2008

How to Make Bio Diesel

Titration of Free Fatty Acids.
Measure Free Fatty Acid content of your oil: Mix 1 ml oil with 10 ml Isopropyl alcohol = 2 drops phenolthalian solution (available in a hobby shop chemistry set suppliers). Drop wise add 0.1% lye solution ( 1 gm lye in one litre water ) until the solution stays pink for 10 seconds. (20 drops = 1 ml) Record the millilitres of 0.1% lye solution used.

Methanol
You will need 200 ml of methanol per litre of Hemp Seed oil. Methanol may be purchased as Drigas available at most automotive stores, read the label for methanol. Also Methanol is available from racing stores. Avoid hardware store methanol (wood alcohol) as it may contain excessive water content.

Sodium Methoxide
For each liter of hemp seed oil you need one gram of granular solid lye for each ml of 0.1% lye solution used in titration of free fatty acids plus 3.5 grams. Completely dissolve the proper amount of Lye in the methanol (Red Devil Lye can be purchased from the Grocery Store). This combined mixture makes sodium methoxide.

Mixer
The type of mixer depends on the size of the batch. A blender works fine for a small batch. An electric drill and paint mixer on an extended shaft works well in a 5 gallon bucket. An electric light dimmer switch provides a good speed control.

Transesterfication
Once the lye catalyst is dissolved completely so that there is no sediment, then the oil may be added to the methanol lye mixture while mixing continuously. At first the mixture becomes thicker, then thinner as the reaction proceeds. Collect samples every 5 minutes with an eye dropper into a test tube or clear container. The Mixture will separate into a light top layer of bio diesel and a darker bottom layer of glycerin, soap and catalyst. Continued mixing 30 – 60 minutes until the yield remains constant. Then stop mixing. Go have lunch. When you come back it will have settled into two distinct layers. You have just made what could be the fuel of the future for a self reliant society. Let the mixture settle for at least 8 hours. Pour off and save the bio diesel top layer into another container. A clear funnel bottomed container is helpful.

Rinsing
The raw biodiesel that you have just produced may have some catalyst, alcohol, and glycerin remaining which could cause engine problems, so for long term engine reliability this raw fuel should be rinsed with water. Gently at first then more vigorously rinse with water until the rinse water is clear and the pH of the rinse water is the same pH as the supply water. Settle, Decant.

Drying
Water in the bio Diesel makes cloudy so it must be carefully heated. At 100 C most of the water coalesces and falls to the bottom. This water must be completely removed from the bottom of the container before heating to higher temperature.

CAUTION! Wear protective clothing and eyewear.

FAILURE TO REMOVE THIS WATER BEFORE FURTHER HEATING CAN CAUSE VIOLENT ERUPTION OF HOT LIQUID!

Once all water has been removed then heat the bio diesel to 300 f (150 c) to complete dryness. Cool, filter, and store bio diesel in a well marked dry closed container. 100% HEMP DIESEL FUEL (HEMP OIL METHYL ESTER – HOME FUEL)

This fuel may be mixed in any ratio with petroleum diesel. Dynamometer tests indicate full power output with up to 75% reduction in soot and particulates. No engine modification is needed to burn bio diesel fuel.

Other Oil Feed stocks

Hemp Seed Oil at present is too expensive to drive across the country. That is not the object of this article. Our propose is to demonstrate proof of feasibility of this fuel concept. The time is now to give hemp a chance. The small quantities of Hemp Diesel Fuel can play a powerful role in educating ourselves and the policy makers about the hope in hemp.

For other readers the question will be raised. What else can I use can I use as a feedstock that is cheaper between now and domestic hemp seed crops? Soy, Sunflower, Canola, and Safflower oils are being used in field testing programs right now. The ground support vehicles at the Kansas City Airport are operating on Soya diesel. Lincoln Nebraska City busses are operating on Bio Diesel.

Go ahead practice your fuel making technique on any vegetable oil available. The most important change for us may start within ourselves. Let us get on with the curriculum.

FAT OF THE LAND
A four woman video crew recently traveled across the country from new York city to San Francisco in a Diesel Chevy Van fueled by French Fryer Bio Diesel. They would drive past the gas pumps and the diesel pumps. They would drive around the back of the burger joint and ask for drippings from the the fryer in day-glow pink waitress outfits. The video is both entertaining and informative. Video is both available from Original Sources (303) 237 – 3579.

SEVEN WAYS AROUND THE GAS PUMP USING HEMP FUEL

References: http://www.hemp4fuel.com/

This is my answer to April: There is not any favourable medical response which affirms a link between the gateway drugs and any other type of psychoactive substances, our objective is to push to the curiosity, to have a little consciousness about drugs and hemp especially, ‘cos it is well-known that it has an energy importance, absolutely to be evaluated, don’t you think? The barrel of crude oil price it is near two a hundred dollars,and my country, Italy, it was the third country in the world for hemp export, you know?

Without omitting his absolute medical importance, even recognized in a few American states.

However, talking about the data provided on GatehouseAcademy.com, I only tell you that in Italy the “rehabilitation” (control urines and hair, guide document suspension, etc..) can begin if you are in 0.16 gram Hemp possession. And here the question: are you absolutely sure which is not an association with profit purpose?

It’s just a question, don’t misunderstand the answer tone, I accept any opinion or discussion. Please, link me what you have read and if you want come back on this blog, it will be a pleasure to talk still to you.

Thank you and see ya 😀

Hemp Ethanol vs Petrol

May 8, 2008

Hemp Ethanol vs Petrol:

Net Reduction in Ground-level Ozone Forming Emissions: Ground-level ozone causes human respiratory problems and damages many plants but does nothing to increase ozone concentration in the stratosphere that protects the earth from the sun’s ultraviolet radiation. There are many compounds that react with sunlight to form ground-level ozone, which, in combination with moisture and particulate matter, creates ‘smog’, the most visible form of air pollution. These compounds include carbon monoxide, unburned hydrocarbons, benzene, and nitrogen oxides (nitrous oxide and nitric oxide).

In an effort to reduce automobile emissions that contribute to the formation of ground-level ozone, the highly populated state of California has legislated stringent automobile emissions standards. Several Canadian urban centers record similar hazardous exposures to carbon monoxide, especially during late fall and winter, and would be out of compliance if Canada implemented air quality legislation equivalent to the U.S. Clean Air Act. In Canada, southern Ontario, southern British Columbia, and parts of Nova Scotia and New Brunswick are prone to smog. Using oxygenated fuels, such as ethanol, is one way of addressing the issue of air pollution.

The net effect of ethanol use results in an overall decrease in ozone formation. The emissions produced by burning ethanol are less reactive with sunlight than those produced by burning gasoline, resulting in a lower potential for forming the damaging ozone. In Canada, where the volatility of ethanol blends must match normal gasoline, the ozone forming potential of ethanol blends is even lower than in the U.S., where ethanol blends are allowed to have increased volatility.

Reduction in Harmful Greenhouse Gases: The ‘Greenhouse Effect’ refers to the Earth’s atmosphere trapping the sun’s radiation. It is a term often used synonymously with ‘Global Warming’, which refers to the increasing average global temperature, arising from an increase in greenhouse gases from industrial activity and population growth. Greenhouse gases contributing to the Greenhouse Effect include carbon dioxide, methane, and nitrogen oxide.

The term ‘Climate Change’ refers to a wide range of changes in weather patterns that result from global warming. A substantial increase in the Earth’s average temperature could result in a change in agricultural patterns and melting of polar ice caps, raising sea levels and causing flooding of low-lying coastal areas.

The use of ethanol-blended fuels such as E85 (85% ethanol and 15% gasoline) can reduce the net emissions of greenhouse gases by as much as 37.1%. Ethanol-blended fuel as E10 (10% ethanol and 90% gasoline) reduces greenhouse gases by up to 3.9%. By the year 2010, the reductions for E85 and E10 are projected to be 44.5% and 4.6%, respectively. This represents only a small percentage of the total greenhouse gas reduction required from the Kyoto Protocol. It is expected that once ethanol is made from cellulose, the greenhouse gas emissions reductions will further improve. Hemp produces four times as much cellulose per acre than trees.

Emissions Reductions from Using Ethanol-Blended Fuels:

Reduction in Net Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Emissions: Use of 10% ethanol-blended fuels results in a 6-10% net reduction of CO2. The carbon dioxide released from ethanol production and use is less than that absorbed by the plants and soil organic matter used to produce ethanol. The carbon dioxide produced during ethanol production and gasoline combustion is extracted from the atmosphere by plants for starch and sugar formation during photosynthesis. It is assimilated by the crop in its roots, stalks and leaves, which usually return to the soil to maintain organic matter, or in the grain, the portion currently used to produce ethanol. Over time, the organic matter breaks down to CO2, but with the implementation of conservation measures, such as reduced tillage, the soil organic matter will build up. Therefore, by increasing its organic matter content, the soil acts as a significant sink for carbon dioxide.

Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC’s):Volatile organic compounds are highly reactive in the atmosphere, and are significant sources of ground-level ozone formation. Because ethanol oxygenates the fuel, there is approximately a 7% overall decrease in exhaust VOC’s emitted from low-level ethanol-blended fuels relative to conventional fossil fuels. In high level blends, the potential for exhaust VOC reduction is 30% or more.

Sulphur Dioxide (SO2) and Particulates: As ethanol contains no sulphur, and because it promotes more complete fuel combustion, blending gasoline with ethanol would reduce any potential for these emissions and the adverse effects of sulphur. In diesel engines, where SO2 and particulates are of concern, the use of ethanol-blended diesel or neat ethanol shows a significant reduction in these emissions.

References: Environmental Benefits of Ethanol

Hemp Biodiesel vs Diesel

May 6, 2008

Hemp Biodiesel vs Diesel:

Overall ozone (smog) forming potential of biodiesel is less than diesel fuel. The ozone forming potential of the speciated hydrocarbon emissions was nearly 50 percent less than that measured for diesel fuel.

Sulfur emissions are essentially eliminated with pure biodiesel. The exhaust emissions of sulfur oxides and sulfates (major components of acid rain) from biodiesel were essentially eliminated compared to sulfur oxides and sulfates from diesel.

Criteria pollutants are reduced with biodiesel use. The use of biodiesel in an unmodified Cummins N14 diesel engine resulted in substantial reductions of unburned hydrocarbons, carbon monoxide, and particulate matter. Emissions of nitrogen oxides were slightly increased.

Carbon Monoxide: The exhaust emissions of carbon monoxide (a poisonous gas) from biodiesel were 50 percent lower than carbon monoxide emissions from diesel.

Particulate Matter: Breathing particulate has been shown to be a human health hazard. The exhaust emissions of particulate matter from biodiesel were 30 percent lower than overall particulate matter emissions from diesel.

Hydrocarbons: The exhaust emissions of total hydrocarbons (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) were 93 percent lower for biodiesel than diesel fuel.

Nitrogen Oxides: NOx emissions from biodiesel increase or decrease depending on the engine family and testing procedures. NOx emissions (a contributing factor in the localized formation of smog and ozone) from pure (100%) biodiesel increased in this test by 13 percent. However, biodiesel’s lack of sulfur allows the use of NOx control technologies that cannot be used with conventional diesel. So, biodiesel NOx emissions can be effectively managed and efficiently eliminated as a concern of the fuel’s use.

Biodiesel reduces the health risks associated with petroleum diesel. Biodiesel emissions showed decreased levels of PAH and nitrited PAH compounds which have been identified as potential cancer causing compounds. In the recent testing, PAH compounds were reduced by 75 to 85 percent, with the exception of benzo(a)anthracene, which was reduced by roughly 50 percent. Targeted nPAH compounds were also reduced dramatically with biodiesel fuel, with 2-nitrofluorene and 1-nitropyrene reduced by 90 percent, and the rest of the nPAH compounds reduced to only trace levels.

Environmental & Safety Information:

Acute Oral Toxicity/Rates: Biodiesel is nontoxic. The acute oral LD50 (lethal dose) is greater than 17.4 g/Kg body weight. By comparison, table salt (NaCL) is nearly 10 times more toxic.

Skin Irritation: A 24-hr. human patch test indicated that undiluted biodiesel produced very mild irritation. The irritation was less than the result produced by a 4 percent soap and water solution.

Aquatic Toxicity: A 96-hr. lethal concentration for bluegill of biodiesel grade methyl esters was greater than 1000 mg/L. Lethal concentrations at these levels are generally deemed “insignificant” according to NIOSH (National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health) guidelines in its Registry of the Toxic Effects of Chemical Substances.

Biodegradability: Biodiesel degrades about four times faster than petroleum diesel. Within 28 days, pure biodiesel degrades 85 to 88 percent in water. Dextrose (a test sugar used as the positive control when testing biodegradability) degraded at the same rate. Blending biodiesel with diesel fuel accelerates its biodegradability. For example, blends of 20 percent biodiesel and 80 percent diesel fuel degrade twice as fast as #2 diesel alone.

Flash Point: The flash point of a fuel is defined as the temperature at which it will ignite when exposed to a spark or flame. Biodiesel’s flash point is over 300 deg. Fahrenheit, well above petroleum based diesel fuel’s flash point of around 125 deg. Fahrenheit. Testing has shown the flash point of biodiesel blends increases as the percentage of biodiesel increases. Therefore, biodiesel and blends of biodiesel with petroleum diesel are safer to store, handle, and use than conventional diesel fuel.

References:

National Biodiesel Board, Fuel Fact Sheet

Henry Ford and hemp fuel..

May 6, 2008

“There’s enough alcohol in one year’s yeild of an acre of potatoes to drive the machinery necessary to cultivate the fields for one hundred years.” – Henry Ford

Pioneering automotive engineer Henry Ford held many patents on automotive mechanisms, but is best remembered for helping devise the factory assembly approach to production that revolutionized the auto industry by greatly reducing the time required to assemble a car.

Born in Wayne County, Michigan, Ford showed an early interest in mechanics, constructing his first steam engine at the age of 15. In 1893 he built his first internal combustion engine, a small one-cylinder gasoline model, and in 1896 he built his first automobile.

In June 1903 Ford helped establish Ford Motor Company. He served as president of the company from 1906 to 1919 and from 1943 to 1945.

In addition to earning numerous patents on auto mechanisms, Ford served as a vice president of the Society of Automotive Engineers when it was founded in 1905 to standardize U.S. automotive parts.

Ignominy

Shamefully, Ford was an anti-Semitic and Nazi sympathizer. Comparable to Thomas Jefferson having slaves; it is paradoxical that Henry Ford (considered to be one of America’s greatest minds) should also be preoccupied with racism.

Fuel of the Future

When Henry Ford told a New York Times reporter that ethyl alcohol was “the fuel of the future” in 1925, he was expressing an opinion that was widely shared in the automotive industry. “The fuel of the future is going to come from fruit like that sumach out by the road, or from apples, weeds, sawdust — almost anything,” he said. “There is fuel in every bit of vegetable matter that can be fermented. There’s enough alcohol in one year’s yield of an acre of potatoes to drive the machinery necessary to cultivate the fields for a hundred years.”

Ford recognized the utility of the hemp plant. He constructed a car of resin stiffened hemp fiber, and even ran the car on ethanol made from hemp. Ford knew that hemp could produce vast economic resources if widely cultivated.

Ford’s optimistic appraisal of cellulose and crop based ethyl alcohol fuel can be read in several ways. First, it can be seen as an oblique jab at a competitor. General Motors had come to considerable grief that summer of 1925 over another octane boosting fuel called tetra-ethyl lead, and government officials had been quietly in touch with Ford engineers about alternatives to leaded gasoline additives. Secondly, by 1925 the American farms that Ford loved were facing an economic crisis that would later intensify with the depression. Although the causes of the crisis were complex, one possible solution was seen in creating new markets for farm products. With Ford’s financial and political backing, the idea of opening up industrial markets for farmers would be translated into a broad movement for scientific research in agriculture that would be labelled “Farm Chemurgy.”

Why Henry’s plans were delayed for more than a half century:

Ethanol has been known as a fuel for many decades. Indeed, when Henry Ford designed the Model T, it was his expectation that ethanol, made from renewable biological materials, would be a major automobile fuel. However, gasoline emerged as the dominant transportation fuel in the early twentieth century because of the ease of operation of gasoline engines with the materials then available for engine construction, a growing supply of cheaper petroleum from oil field discoveries, and intense lobbying by petroleum companies for the federal government to maintain steep alcohol taxes. Many bills proposing a National energy program that made use of Americas vast agricultural resources (for fuel production) were killed by smear campaigns launched by vested petroleum interests. One noteworthy claim put forth by petrol companies was that the U.S. government’s plans “robbed taxpayers to make farmers rich”.

Gasoline had many disadvantages as an automotive resource. The “new” fuel had a lower octane rating than ethanol, was much more toxic (particularly when blended with tetra-ethyl lead and other compounds to enhance octane), generally more dangerous, and contained threatening air pollutants. Petroleum was more likely to explode and burn accidentally, gum would form on storage surfaces and carbon deposits would form in combustion chambers of engines. Pipelines were needed for distribution from “area found” to “area needed”. Petroleum was much more physically and chemically diverse than ethanol, necessitating complex refining procedures to ensure the manufacture of a consistent “gasoline” product.

However, despite these environmental flaws, fuels made from petroleum have dominated automobile transportation for the past three-quarters of a century. There are two key reasons: First, cost per kilometer of travel has been virtually the sole selection criteria. Second, the large investments made by the oil and auto industries in physical capital, human skills and technology make the entry of a new cost-competitive industry difficult.

Until very recently, environmental concerns have been largely ignored. All of that is finally changing as consumers demand fuels such as ethanol, which are much better for the environment and human health.

References

  • The National Inventors Hall of Fame
  • Global Hemp
  • Green Fuels